Making Königsberg Kaliningrad: The Lost Jewel of the Baltic

By Victoria Kulikova of The Epoch Times

June 6, 2017 2:10 pm Last Updated: September 25, 2017 5:14 pm

Architectural vandalism committed by the new Soviet authorities leaves other historical scars in Kaliningrad.  

The state of Königsberg Castle in 1945, after the conclusion of World War II. (Public Domain)
The state of Königsberg Castle in 1945, after the conclusion of World War II. (Public Domain)

Königsberg had been the biggest trading hub in the Baltic and a major cultural center; it was home of towering Gothic churches and medieval castles. The city, well preserved for around 750 years, is now only visible in prewar photograpArchitectural Vandalism

Granted, Königsberg had sustained heavy bombardment in the war, whether by Allied air raids or Soviet artillery shells. But many of the sturdy German buildings, including Königsberg Castle, the city’s main landmark and a construction of Teutonic knights dating back to the 13th century, were structurally intact.

Kaliningrad authorities initially planned to renovate the castle as a museum for local history, but Moscow disagreed.

Alexei Kosygin, Soviet statesman and co-leader in the 1960s, was livid when he heard the proposal: “A museum?! What kind of museum? Museum of Prussian militarism? I want it gone by tomorrow!”

The final word came from Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, and the relic of “Prussian militarism” was demolished entirely. In its place was erected the never-finished and never-opened House of Soviets. It resembles a cross between a Rubix Cube and the hemispheres of a human brain. Locals refer to it as a “robot” for its two “eyes.”

Other buildings, particularly churches, were treated similarly—instead of being renovated or rebuilt, the Soviets took the opportunity to demolish them as traces of “Prussian militarism” and blamed the result on war damage.

The ruins of the Königsberg castle lie before the unfinished House of Soviets. (Ilya Denbrov/CC-BY 4.0)
The ruins of the Königsberg castle lie before the unfinished House of Soviets

Ironically, bricks from the demolished buildings were recycled for use in other Soviet cities, and German construction workers were employed to rebuilt several prominent buildings in Moscow.

The Alstadtkirche was one such landmark destroyed as a result of “war damage”—the Gothic church was heavily damaged by air attack but still standing. Initially, the local government planned to preserve it because it was designed by prominent  architect Friedrich Schinkel. Nevertheless it was demolished as a source of surplus bricks.

Other churches in East Prussia met a similar fate. The Lutherkirche, which survived bombing of Königsberg mostly unharmed, was blown up in 1976. The Communist Party destroyed numerous churches in Russia and had even less mercy for German churches.

An 1840 drawing of the Altstadtkirche in Königsberg. The artist is Karl Friedrich Schinkel, who designed the church. (Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin/Public Domain)
An 1840 drawing of the Altstadtkirche in Königsberg.
The artist is Karl Friedrich Schinkel, who designed the church

Not everyone liked what was happening. An anecdote from the first Soviet settlers in Kaliningrad condemned those who participated in the demolitions.

“A church was turned into a culture center … This church had two bells. Two young fellows agreed to take down the bells and to file down the crucifixes. They get good pay for this job. But some old women cried and said these two men wouldn’t have long to live. One of the men was hit by a train, and the other died in a similarly brutal accident. Those men who melted the bells died too. All our grannies cried when German churches were ravaged.”

The Königsberg Cathedral may have gone the way of the Teutonic castle were it not for the onsite grave of philosopher Immanuel Kant. The Soviet government left the damaged building intact, and it was renovated in the 1990s following the collapse of communism.

A 1988 photo shows the derelict Königsberg Cathedral. (CC-BY 2.0)
A 1988 photo shows the derelict Königsberg Cathedral

Eastern Blocks

The destruction of German heritage was continued even outside Soviet territory, in occupied East Germany. The Berlin city palace, like Königsberg castle, was regarded as a symbol of militarism and ordered destroyed in 1950 by East German communist leader Walter Ulbricht.  Its reconstruction was begun in 2013.

In Kaliningrad, as was typical of communist bloc states, the need for mass housing inspired the construction of massive concrete apartment complexes, colloquially called “khrushchyovkas” in the Soviet Union for the communist leader, Nikita Khrushchev, under whose term they were built. Much old architecture was destroyed to make way.

It’s appropriate to compare Königsberg’s decimation with other cities in the region. Danzig (today Gdansk), another port on the Baltic Sea, received 70 to 80 percent destruction of its city center by aerial bombardment.  After the war, Gdansk was similarly depopulated of its German inhabitants and placed under the administration of Poland.

But instead of demolishing the old architecture, the local government reconstructed much of it, even those buildings completely destroyed. Renovation of old buildings has continued into the 21st century. Today Gdansk, with around 1,000 years of history, is Poland’s most popular tourist destination and attracts visitors from all across Europe.

Please visit The Epoch Times website for more on this article.


Editor’s note: Original World has added a week of travels to their Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova tour to learn about Russian Imperial History and culture in the Russian Federation including the splendor of St. Petersburg, the beautiful Crimea and the fascinating historical Kaliningrad.

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